Upland red spruce communities in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia provide unique habitats for an abundance of living organisms. As part of a statewide vegetation classification effort, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources personnel used Natural Heritage methodology to assess upland red spruce habitats. Five associations were classified, peer-reviewed, and published in the U. S. National Vegetation Classification (NVC). These red spruce forest and woodland associations are all ranked as high state and global conservation priorities. Documented species occurrences in the study area include 850 animals, 211 plants, 105 fungi, and 81 slime molds. Rare taxa include 9 mammals, 16 breeding birds, 2 reptiles, 4 amphibians, 7 land snails, 3 crayfish, 17 butterflies, 10 moths, and 9 vascular plants. This report complements a recently completed assessment of high elevation wetland communities within the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia, and together these two reports complete the NVC classification of red spruce communities in West Virginia.